Genome · 6articles

The genome is the entire set of DNA instructions found in a cell. Human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes.

The minimal genome has been created and it evolves

The minimal cell and how it evolved

Researchers conducted a groundbreaking study on a bacterium with a minimal genome. They observed that despite a loss of fitness during genome minimisation, the minimal cell evolved and regained its lost fitness over 2,000 generations. The study revealed that evolution persisted even in the absence of backup genes, challenging previous assumptions. These findings have significant implications for understanding the adaptability of organisms with simplified genomes and their relevance to clinical pathogens, host-associated endosymbionts, engineered microorganisms, and the origins of life itself.
Illustration of how DNA in our genome is compacted into a chromosomes by forming loops.

Scientists decode how our genome is functionally compacted

Our genome is large. It is compacted into domains in the nucleus of cell. These domains, called topologically associating domains (TADs) are important for gene regulation and recombination during development and disease. The DNA-binding protein CTCF and cohesin were known to regulate the compaction of our genome. Now, scientists have discovered that DNA tension plays a major role too.
April 25, 2023